Trong tiếng Anh thì quá khứ hoàn thành có cách sử dụng khá phức tạp, dễ gây nhầm lẫn và khó khăn cho người học. Trước khi bắt đầu làm bài tập, chúng ta hãy cùng ôn qua một chút kiến thức cốt lõi nhất của thì quá khứ hoàn thành nhé:
Tóm tắt cách dùng thì quá khứ hoàn thành
1. Cách dùng
- Diễn tả một hành động diễn ra trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ
- Dùng mô tả hành động trước một thời gian xác định trong quá khứ
- Sử dụng trong câu điều kiện loại III
Ví dụ: Hôm qua khi cô ấy đến, chúng tôi đã ăn trưa xong.
“chúng tôi đã ăn trưa xong”: xảy ra trước, chia ở quá khứ hoàn thành
“khi cô ấy đến”: xảy ra sau, chia ở quá khứ đơn
Câu hoàn chỉnh: Yesterday, we had had lunch when she arrived.
2. Dấu hiệu nhận biết
Từ nhận biết: until then, by the time, prior to that time, before, after, for, as soon as, by, …
Trong câu thường có các từ: before, after, when by, by the time, by the end of + time in the past …
Dấu hiệu: “after”
Hành động xảy ra trước – Thì Quá khứ hoàn thành.
Hành động xảy ra sau – Thì quá khứ đơn
Dấu hiệu: “before”
Sau “before” + Quá khứ đơn, Vế sau dùng quá khứ hoàn thành.
Dấu hiệu: when
“when” + quá khứ đơn, vế sau dùng Quá khứ hoàn thành.
3. Công thức
+ S + had Ved/PII + O…
Trong đó: S (subject): chủ ngữ
Had: trợ động từ
VpII: động từ phân từ II
Ex: I had watched this film before I went to bed yesterday.
(Tôi đã xem bộ phim này trước khi tôi đi ngủ ngày hôm qua)
– S + hadn’t Ved/PII + O…
Ex: My friend told me that she hadn’t learnt a lot before the test.
(Bạn tôi nói với tôi rằng cô ấy đã không học nhiều trước bài kiểm tra)
? Had + S + Ved/PII + O…?
Ex: Had she seen me before?
(Cô ấy đã gặp tôi trước đó đúng không?)
Bài tập thì quá khứ hoàn thành từ cơ bản tới nâng cao
I. Hoàn thành câu
- When Hoa arrived at the theater, the film ____________(start).
- He ____________ (live) in Laos before He went to Vietnam.
- After Lan ____________ (eat) the cake, Lan began to feel sick.
- If he ____________ (listen) to me, he would have got the job.
- Linh didn’t arrive until I ____________ (leave).
- After they ____________ (finish) lunch, they went out.
- The tree was dead because it ____________ (be) arid all summer.
- I ____________ (meet) him somewhere before.
- They were late for the flight because they ____________ (forget) their passports.
- Linh told me she ____________ (study) a lot before the exam.
- The leaf was yellow because it ____________ (not/rain) all summer.
- The lamp went off because I ____________ (not/pay) the electricity bill.
- Hoa____________ (not/do) her homework, so she was in trouble.
- She ____________ (not/eat) so we went to a restaurant.
- I couldn’t go into the cinema because I ____________ (not/bring) my tickets.
- He said that He ____________ (not/visit) the US before.
- Hoa and Lan ____________ (not/meet) before the exam.
- I ____________ (not/have) lunch when she arrived.
- She ____________ (not/use) smartphone before, so I showed her how to use it.
- Linh ____________ (not/study) for the exam, so she was very anxious.
Xem thêm: Bài tập thì quá khứ đơn có đáp án
II. Hoàn thành câu
- The tornado destroyed the tent that we (build) ____________.
- She (not / be) ____________ to Hanoi before 2018.
- When he went out to play, he (do / already) ____________ his homework.
- My sister ate all of the cake that our mum (make) ____________ .
- The nurse took off the plaster that she (put on) ____________ six weeks before.
- The waitress brought a drink that I (not / order) ____________ .
- I could not remember the song we (learn) ____________ three week before.
- The children collected mangos that (fall) ____________ from the tree.
- (she / phone) ____________ Nam before she went to see him in Laos?
- He (not / ride) ____________ a elephants before that day.
III. Sắp xếp các câu sau và chia động từ (nếu có)
- When/her/in/,/he/had/join/Linh/best friend/Bangkok/the/Ever/meet.
- Cuong/this/before/last night/had/text/he/went/translate/out.
- They/before/had/to/the meeting/speak/her.
- I/that/hadn’t/see/before/was/the man/sure/I.
IV. Tìm và sửa lỗi sai (nếu có)
- I had finished lunch before my parents come.
- By the time I had found the key, I hadn’t got into the house.
- Up until that moment, my younger sister never believed in love.
- Sunny ate dinner so she wasn’t hungry.
- When Bob graduated in university, he was in New York for 5 years.
- She wishes her friends didn’t go to bed so early.
- My boyfriend didn’t meet me when I arrived.
V. Bài tập khoanh vào đáp án đúng nhất của thì quá khứ hoàn thành
- By the time he came home, we ……. ( sleep)
A. had sleep
- I watched movie after I …….(complete) my homework.
A. have completed
B. had complete
C. had completed
- My father ……..(go) out when my sister arrived in the zoo .
B. have gone
C. has gone
D. had gone
- I ………(study) a little English before I went to Singapore.
B. had studied
C. had study
D. have studied
- Alice ________ a Vietnamese until he met Nam.
A. had never met
B. have never met
C. never met
D. never have met
- Before we took a look around the shops, we …..(have) lunch.
A. had had
C. have had
- (where / she / live)…… before she moved to Shanghai?
A. Where did she live
B. Where had she lived
C. Where had she live
D. Where she had lived
- Before I went to bed, I …….(brush) my teeth
A. have brushed
B. had brushed
- Before my mother came home, my brother…… (prepare) food on the table.
A. had prepared
B. have prepared
D. had prepare
10. If she …… (tell) me the truth yesterday, I would have helped her.
A. have tell
B. had told
VI. Bài tập nâng cao thì quá khứ hoàn thành
- I was exhausted at the end of the test. I (write) ____________ for over three hours.
- When thieves stole my favourite leather wallet, I was really upset. I (have) ____________ it for over five years.
- Please step out of the truck, Mr.Đạt. Do you realise you (drive) ____________ at over 100mph?
- We didn’t really want to go and see the film again. We (already see) ____________ it twice – so we said “no” and we went to a shopping mall instead!
- I arrived over two hours late to the office and everyone in my company was working. Actually, they (work) ____________ for over three hours on the new project and I felt really guilty.
- The kitchen was full of pans when we arrived. Loan was in the kitchen and she (cook) ____________ a big meal for everyone at the party.
- It was a bit discomfiture to arrive at their house and find Linh looking so depressed. I think she (cry) ____________ before I got there.
- No-one even noticed when he got home. They (all watch) ____________ the favorite show on television.
Đáp án chi tiết
- had started
- had lived
- had eaten
- had listened
- had left
- had finished
- had been
- had met
- had forgotten
- had studied
- hadn’t rained
- hadn’t paid
- hadn’t done
- hadn’t eaten
- hadn’t brought
- hadn’t visited
- hadn’t met
- hadn’t had
- hadn’t used
- hadn’t studied
- had built
- had not been
- had already done
- had made
- had put on
- had not ordered
- had learned
- had fallen
- had she phoned
- had not ridden
- The light had turned off before they got out of the office.
- By the time I began my work, she had left quickly.
- After my father finished his work, we came back home.
- Before my brother went to bed, he had read an interesting novel.
- When Linh met her best friend in Bangkok, he had joined the Ever.
- Cuong had translated this text before he went out last night.
- Had Hung used your email before he met you?
- When my parents arrived, I hadn’t had lunch.
- They had spoken to her before the meeting.
- I was sure that I hadn’t seen the man before.
- come ➔ came
- had found ➔ found
- never believed ➔ had never believed
- ate ➔ had eaten
- was ➔ had been
- didn’t go ➔ hadn’t gone
- didn’t meet ➔ hadn’t met
- had been writing.
- had had.
- were driving.
- had already seen.
- had been working.
- was cooking.
- had been crying.
- were all watching.
Có thắc mắc hoặc câu hỏi nào các bạn hãy bình luận bên dưới để chúng ta cùng trao đổi nhé.